新发展阶段农村贫困的识别与测度——基于绝对贫困和相对贫困的双重视角
Identification and Measurement of Rural Poverty in the New Development Stage——based on the dual perspective of absolute and relative poverty
投稿时间:2021-12-25  修订日期:2022-03-09
DOI:
中文关键词:  新发展阶段  农村居民  绝对贫困  相对贫困  多维贫困
英文关键词:New development stage  Rural residents  Absolute poverty  Relative poverty  Multidimensional poverty
基金项目:全国统计科学研究一般项目 (2019768);教育部人文社科规划基金项目(19YJA840008)
作者单位邮编
李壮壮 安徽大学 经济学院 230601
龙 莹 安徽大学 经济学院 
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中文摘要:
      如何将农村相对贫困的测度与防止绝对贫困返贫相结合,以实现新发展阶段下乡村的贫困治理和振兴是一个值得关注的问题。鉴于此,本文选择CFPS2018年的农村家庭数据为样本,从绝对贫困和相对贫困的双重视角出发构建符合新发展阶段情景的中国农村多维贫困指标体系,采取改进的AF法识别、测度和分解农村居民家庭的多维贫困。研究表明:中国农村居民家庭在受教育水平、养老保险参保率和家庭人均旅游支出等几个指标上的贫困发生率较高,在收入、健康、生活水平等维度上存在较高的返贫风险;从多维贫困指数的变化来看,随着K值的上升,多维贫困指数虽然在逐渐减小,但在K_1=0.2和K_2=0.4时的贫困指数仍然较大,表明农村居民家庭在4-7个指标上发生多维贫困的概率较高。进一步的指数分解发现,吉林、辽宁、广西等地区,严重的相对贫困问题和高绝对贫困返贫风险共存;家庭人均工作小时数和家庭人均旅游支出等休闲维度指标逐渐对农村居民家庭相对贫困产生重要影响。据此,本文认为新发展阶段时期在缓解农村居民在受教育年水平、养老保险参保率和家庭人均旅游支出等几个指标上的相对贫困问题时,也应防止一些地区的农村居民在收入、健康和生活水平等维度上返贫。
英文摘要:
      It is a matter of concern how to combine the measurement of rural relative poverty with the prevention of absolute poverty returning to poverty in order to realize rural poverty governance and revitalization in the new stage of development. In view of this, this paper selects CFPS2018 rural household data as the sample, constructs a multidimensional poverty index system that conforms to the scenario of the new development stage in China’s rural areas from the dual perspectives of absolute poverty and relative poverty, and adopts the improved AF method to identify, measure and decompose multidimensional poverty of rural households. The main conclusions are as follows: The rural households in China have a high incidence of poverty in several indicators such as the number of years of education, pension insurance participation rate and per capital travel expenditure, and there is a high risk of returning to poverty in the dimensions of income, health and living standards. From the perspective of the change of multidimensional poverty index, the multidimensional poverty index decreases gradually with the increase of K value, but the poverty index is still large when K_1=0.2 and K_2=0.4, indicating that rural households have a high probability of multidimensional poverty in 4-7 indicators. Further decomposition of indicators shows, serious relative poverty and high risk of falling back into absolute poverty coexist in Jilin, Liaoning, Guangxi and other regions, and leisure indicators such as per capital working hours of families and per capita travel expenditure of families gradually have an important impact on the relative poverty of rural households. Therefore, this paper argues, while alleviating the relative poverty of rural residents in several indicators, such as the education level, the participation rate of old-age insurance and the per capita travel expenditure of families, should also prevent the rural residents in some areas from returning to poverty in the dimensions of income, health and living standards in the new development stage.
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