不同回交次数对改进小麦若干农艺性状的效果
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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF BACKCROSS ON IMPROVING AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS IN WHEAT
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    摘要:

    本文在1980~1984年配制9个回交组合的基础上进行研究的,主要结果:1.回交二代中通过选择能获得所需早熟、矮秆具有供体性状应有强度的植株。2.轮回亲本的主要经济性状可在回交二代(BC_2)或回交自交后代(BC_1F_1,BC_2F_1)中基本得到恢复。8.回交世代性状选育效果取决于纯合率速度并与狭义遗传力及性状基因效应趋势基本一致。4.回交二代的净增纯合体百分率与X%=〔(2~m-1)/2~m〕~n公式计算得的纯合率基本相符,由此可推知控制性状的基因数目。BC_1F_1若干性状的纯合体百分率约为回交一代的1/2~1/3左右。5.对于每穗粒数、千粒重等遗传力高的性状,可结合杂交育种工作采用有限回交同步改良。在严格选择轮回亲本的基础上,通过回交二代可获得保持(或超过)原品种主要优良性状兼具矮秆或半矮秆、早熟、穗重型的材料。

    Abstract:

    Nine crosses were studied from 1980 to 1984.The main results are shown as following:1.Short culm plants with early maturity,which have some donor traits could be selected in the BC2 generation.2.The main economic traits of the recurrent parent could be basically recovered in BCz or BC1F1(BC2F1)generations.3.Selection effects for traits in backcrossed generations depends upon the rate of homozygosity advance which should show the same trend as narrow heritability and gene effects for traits.4.The net increment of homozygosity proportion in BC2 fitted in with the theoretical results calculated by formula and thus the number of genescontrolling the traits could be calculated.The proportion homozygosity of some traits in BC1F1 are about 1/2-1/3 of BC1 progenies.5.High heritability traits such as grain number per panicle and weight per thousand grains can be improved synchronously by limited backcrossing in breeding procedures.Based on strict selection of recurrent parents,new varieties which maintain(or surpass)the main desirable traits of the original varieties and have short or semishort culm,early maturity and big panicles can be selected by limited backcrossing in a shorter breeding period.The results showed that limited backcrossing can shorten the breeding period and is an effective technique.

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谢瑞生 张振宏.不同回交次数对改进小麦若干农艺性状的效果[J].华南农业大学学报,1989,(2):1-12

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