In this paper, the general biological characters of earthworm were first introduced in brief. Then the effective components of medication and nutrition from earthworm were reviewed in detail, especially for several kinds enzymes which have potential application in medication. These included earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme(EFE), Lumbrokinase and so on. The purification, characters and medical function of these enzymes were concerned. Finally a conclusion was reached that exploration of earthworm would play important roles for high tech agricultural development and environmental protection.