控释肥料养分释放规律及对水稻生长发育效应的研究
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广东省重大科技项目(A20405),广州市重大科技项目(2001 Z 024 01)


Nutrient Release of Controlled-Release Fertilizer and its Effects on Rice Growth and Development
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    摘要:

    采用盆栽试验,研究了控释肥料与水稻专用肥不同施用方式的养分释放规律及对水稻生长发育的影响.结果表明,一次性施用控释肥料,在水稻移栽初期对氮素有一定控制效果,至第9d氮素释放达到高峰,第9~50d氮素供应充足,50d以后氮素供应仍维持在较高水平.因此,养分释放完全能满足水稻本田期需求.施用控释肥料,水稻总茎数与一级分蘖均比专用肥分次施用和一次施用处理增加,平均成穗数比后者分别增加16.7%和8.3%;在水稻生长后期叶绿素含量保持在较高水平;水稻谷粒产量显著提高,较专用肥分次施用和一次施用处理分别增产10.1%和18.2%。一次性施用控释肥料能明显提高肥料氮利用率,较专用肥分次施用和一次施用处理分别提高13.5%和22.7%,磷钾利用率也有一定提高。

    Abstract:

    Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF), applying as only one basal, on rice growth and nutrient release. It has been observed that the release of N was controlled at early growth stage immediately after transplanting for the CRF treatment. Release peak of N appeared at the 9th day and kept sufficient N supply from the 9th day to the 50th day after application. In addition, the CRF maintained relatively higher N supply than the specific fertilizer treatments at late stages. This N release model indicated that one basal application of the CRF could satisfactorily meet the demand of N nutrition throughout the growth and development of rice. In comparison with the same rates of the specific fertilizer either in splits or as one basal, the CRF resulted in greater primary tillers thus increasing effective panicle by 16.7% and 8.3% respectively. Application of the CRF significantly increased yield of rice grain by 10.1% and 18.2% respectively, probably due to better N nutrition, which increased chlorophyll concentration of blade, resulting in more effective photosynthesis and carbohydrate accumulation at late growth stages. The utilization efficiency of fertilizer N of the CRF as basal significantly increased by 13.5% and 22.7% respectively, comparing to the rice special fertilizer in splits and as basal. Apart from N, application of the CRF also increased the utilization efficiency of P and K.

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唐拴虎,郑惠典,张发宝,徐培智,张育灿,陈建生.控释肥料养分释放规律及对水稻生长发育效应的研究[J].华南农业大学学报,2003,24(4):9-12

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