高盐度海滩红树林造林试验
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广东省林业科技创新专项资金项目(2009KJCX013-01,2011KJCX017-01);中国林业科学研究院基金项目(CAFYBB2012018);海南东寨港红树林湿地生态站项目资助


Field planting experiments of mangrove on high-salinity beaches
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    【目的】确定不同种类的红树植物在高盐度海滩(盐度在30‰以上)的生长适应性及环境对其生长的影响,为困难立地条件下红树林造林推广提供参考和依据.【方法】通过在高盐度海滩开展多种红树植物在不同的滩面高度、土壤条件及种植条件下红树林造林试验,分析和比较红树植物的生长差异性.【结果和结论】在高盐度海滩,滩面高度对红海榄 Rhizophora stylosa、秋茄 Kandelia obovata、拉关木 Laguncularia racemosa 和无瓣海桑 Sonneratia apetala 4种红树植物的生长量及保存率影响较大.滩面高度在平均海平面附近时,4种红树植物的生长量和保存率基本上达到最大值,随着滩面高度的增加或降低,生长量和保存率呈下降的趋势.滩面高度在平均海平面附近的沙质地条件下,拉关木和无瓣海桑的保存率都较高,超过80%,拉关木生长量远高于无瓣海桑、红海榄和秋茄;滩面高度在平均海平面以上0.2 m的泥质地条件下,红海榄和秋茄保存率高于70%,拉关木和无瓣海桑保存率均低于20%,拉关木与无瓣海桑生长量接近,稍高于红海榄和秋茄.冬春季节的海藻对红树植物的生长具有一定的影响,尤其是在迎风区域对幼树生长危害较大,其中红海榄和拉关木在迎风区域的保存率仅为背风区域的40%左右.沙质地条件下以胚轴苗形式种植的红海榄幼树生长量和保存率远高于以实生苗形式种植的幼树,而在泥质地条件下,不同种植材料的红海榄幼树生长差异性较小.在胚轴苗种植措施方面,在一定范围内不同的胚轴插植深度不会影响红树林幼树的生长和保存情况.

    Abstract:

    【Objective】Growth adaptability of different mangrove species to the environmental influence on the high-salinity beach (higher than 30‰) was determined in order to provide reference and basis for mangrove afforestation on difficult sites. 【Method】Growth difference of mangrove species was analyzed through field planting experiments on high-salinity beaches in relation to different beach elevations, soil types and planting measures. 【Result and conclusion】 Beach elevation had significant effects on the growth and survival rate of mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa, Kandelia obovata, Laguncularia racemosa and Sonneratia apetala on high-salinity beaches. The growth and survival rate reached maximum at mean sea level beach elevation generally,while they showed a declining trend with the beach elevation above or below mean sea level. At the sandy beach with elevation at mean sea level, L. racemosa and S. apetala had a survival rate of over 80%, and the growth amount of L. racemosa was much larger than R. stylosa, K. obovata and S. apetala. At the muddy beach with elevation at 0.2 m above mean sea level, the survival rate of both R. stylosa and K. obovata was over 70% while the survival rate of both L. racemosa and S. apetala was lower than 20%. As for the growth amount, L. racemosa was close to S. apetala, a little larger than R. stylosa and K. obovata. Marine algae affected the growth of mangrove plants in winter and spring. Saplings could suffer heavily especially in the windward area, among which the survival rate of R. stylosa and L. racemosa in the windward area was only 40% of that in the leeward side. At sandy site the growth and survival rate of R. stylosa saplings originated from hypocotyl was much higher compared with those originated from seedlings, but at muddy sites, growth difference of R. stylosa saplings with different origins was relatively small. As for planting measure, planting depth of hypocotyl within a certain range did not influence the growth and survival of mangrove saplings.

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陈玉军,廖宝文,李 玫,邓智泓,魏军发,管 伟.高盐度海滩红树林造林试验[J].华南农业大学学报,2014,35(2):78-85

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  • 收稿日期:2013-09-04
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  • 在线发布日期: 2014-02-28