【目的】为樟科木材识别与系统分类研究提供依据.【方法】利用光学显微镜及扫描电子显微镜对木材结构进行观察.【结果和结论】观察结果表明17种樟科木材结构具有以下特征：散孔材，管孔组合主要为单管孔和短径列复管孔（2~3细胞），偶见管孔团.导管分子仅具单穿孔或兼有单穿孔和梯状穿孔，梯状穿孔横隔数3~14个；管间纹孔式互列.木射线由单列射线和多列射线构成，单列射线稀少，多列射线宽多为2~3细胞.射线类型主要为异形Ⅱ型和异形Ⅲ型，少数异形I型.导管射线间纹孔式多为大圆形及圆肾形.轴向薄壁组织主要为环管束状、轮界状.射线细胞和轴向薄壁细胞中普遍存在油细胞或黏液细胞.根据观察结果，依据17种木材结构编制木材分类检索表.对导管分子穿孔板的研究表明，樟科木材属间和种间的进化程度不一致，琼楠属 Beilschmiedia 和厚壳桂属 Cryptocarya 木材在一定程度上是较为进化的属种.
【Objective】 The wood structures of 17 species belonging to Lauraceae from southwest of Yunnan were studied in order to provide a basis for wood identification, systematics, and taxonomy.【Method】 Wood samples were observed with the help of light microscope and scanning electron microscope.【Result and conclusion】 The results showed that the wood this studied had the following characteristics: The wood had diffuse porous with solitary pores and short radial multiple pores (2-3 cells), and few pore clusters for all the species. The vessels had two kinds of perforation plates: Only simple and both with simple and scalariform perforation and the number of scalariform perforation plate bars were from 3 to 14. The intervessel pitting was alternate. Wood rays were made up of few uniseriate and many multiseriate rays, and multiseriate rays often had 2-3 cells in the widest place. Most ray types were heteromorphosis Ⅱ and heteromorphosis Ⅲ, but few heteromorphosis Ⅰ existed as well. The types of vessel-ray pitting were almost large circular and reniform shape. Axial parenchyma was almost vasicentric and terminal parenchyma. Oil cells or mucous cells were widespread in ray and axial parenchyma cells. Wood classification table is made based on the observations in order to provide the basis for wood identification. The study of vessel perforation plates show that degree of evolution of wood belonging to Lauraceae is inconsistent, and Beilschmiedia and Cryptocarya are relatively evolutionary genera to some extent.