不同模式长期定位施肥对土壤微生物区系的影响
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国家自然科学基金青年科学基金(31301849)


Effects of different long-term fertilization patterns on soil microflora
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    【目的】研究不同模式长期定位施肥处理对土壤微生物数量及微生物量碳、氮、磷的影响。【方法】采用微生物培养法及氯仿熏蒸提取法,研究15种施肥模式对微生物数量及微生物量碳(MBC)、氮(MBN)、磷(MBP)的影响,并进行了相关性分析。【结果】不同施肥处理对土壤微生物的影响:细菌>放线菌>真菌,对微生物量的影响:MBP>MBN>MBC;土壤细菌数量最大值出现在M1(有机肥)处理,土壤放线菌数量最大值出现在M2(有机肥)处理,土壤真菌数量最大值出现在M1NPK(有机肥和无机肥配施)处理。MBC和MBN最大值均出现在M1处理,MBP最大值出现在M2NPK(有机肥和无机肥配施)处理。相关分析的结果表明,MBC含量与土壤微生物数量呈显著正相关。【结论】有机肥的施入可明显地增加土壤微生物数量;有机肥和无机肥配施中,化肥的减量可增加MBC、MBN含量。氮、磷肥在合理范围内的施用可明显促进微生物对氮、磷的吸收,显著增加了MBN、MBP含量。氮肥的施入可明显加速土壤肥力的流失,使土壤由细菌型向真菌型转变;施用有机肥会使土壤更加肥沃。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】To study effects of different fertilization treatments on soil microbial number, microbial biomass carbon(MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen(MBN) and microbial biomass phosphorus(MBP).【Method】Fifteen soil samples were collected from the long-term located fertilization experimental station of Shenyang Agricultural University. The effects of fertilization on microbial number and microbial biomass, and the correlation were studied using microbial culture and chloroform extraction method.【Result】Fertilization had a positive effect on microbial number and microbial biomass. The most affected soil microbes were bacteria, followed by fungi and actinomycetes.The most affected microbial biomass was MBP, followed by MBN and MBC. Among 15 treatments, organic treatment M1 had the highest number of bacteria, organic treatment M2 had the highest number of actinomycetes, and M1NPK treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilizers had the highest number of fungi. M1 had the highest number of MBC and MBN, while M2NPK with organic and inorganic fertilizers had the highest number of MBP. There was a positive correlation between MBC and microbial number.【Conclusion】Organic fertilizer significantly increases microbial number. Reducing inorganic fertilizer can increase MBC and MBN with organic and inorganic fertilizers. Appropriate application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers can promote the microbe to absorb nitrogen and phosphorus, and significantly increase MBN and MBP. Nitrogen fertilizer application can accelerate the loss of soil fertility which causes the soil to change from bacteria type to fungi type. Organic fertilizer application can increase soil fertility.

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韩颖,辛晓通,韩晓日,李军,李嘉琦.不同模式长期定位施肥对土壤微生物区系的影响[J].华南农业大学学报,2016,37(2):51-58

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  • 收稿日期:2015-03-27
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  • 在线发布日期: 2016-02-02