目的 解决水稻Oryza sativa L.两系不育系‘培矮64S’所面临的直链淀粉含量偏高和不育起点温度因遗传漂移而不断上升的问题，选育新的两系不育系。方法 通过利用‘培矮64S’种子搭载“实践八号”农业卫星、地面种植和跟踪、定向筛选，筛选到具有低直链淀粉含量的稳定不育株系，同时结合水稻光温敏不育系的提纯和原种生产方法，对不育起点温度进行加压选择与鉴定。结果 育成具有低直链淀粉含量（w为8.69%左右）、低不育起点温度（23.0 ℃以下）的新型“双低”不育系，命名为‘航17S’。该不育系株高79.62 cm，剑叶长32.54 cm、宽 1.82 cm，有效穗数11.4个，穗长22.01 cm，每穗总粒数约181粒。除剑叶宽以外，其他主要性状均与野生型‘培矮64S’没有显著差异。结论 ‘航17S’除了具有“双低”特点以外，其他主要农艺性状表现与野生型‘培矮64S’基本一致，而且保留了‘培矮64S’的异交特性好、配合力强等优良特点，于2015年10月通过了广东省技术鉴定。
Objective To solve the problems of thermo-photo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) rice ‘Peiai 64S’ caused by rising critical sterility-inducing temperature (CSIT) and higher amylose content in practical production, and breed new male sterile line.Method ‘Peiai 64S’ seeds, which were carried by the agricultural satellite named as “practical #8”, were planted, tracked and directionally selected. The steady sterile line with low amylose content was obtained. In the mean time, according to YUAN Longping’s method for the purification and propagation of PTGMS lines, CSIT was selected and identified by adding pressure.Result The mutant plants with low amylose content (about 8.69%) and low CSIT (below 23.0 ℃) were found. One new mutant line with the dual-low characteristics was identified and named as ‘Hang 17S’. The plant height of ‘Hang 17S’ was 79.62 cm, the flag leaf length and width were 32.54 and 1.82 cm respectively, the panicle number per plant was 11.4, the panicle length was 22.01 cm and the grain number per panicle was about 181. Except for the flag leaf width, there was no significant difference for most of the traits compared with its wild type ‘Peiai 64S’.Conclusion The newly bred ‘Hang 17S’ is much like its wild type ‘Peiai 64S’ for most of the traits except for the dual-low characteristics. And it retains the characteristics of good outcrossing rate and strong combining ability of ‘Peiai 64S’. ‘Hang 17S’ was appraised by the government committee and commercially released in 2015.