目的 分析水稻两系不育系‘M20S’穗部性状的配合力和遗传力，加快‘M20S’潜在育种价值的应用进程。方法 利用4个光温敏水稻不育系（‘望S’、‘深08S’、‘Y58S’以及‘M20S’）和3个恢复系（‘航恢1173’、‘航恢91’和‘航恢24’）按4×3不完全双列杂交（NCⅡ）设计组配，对不育系穗部性状的配合力及遗传力进行分析。结果 所有性状一般配合力和特殊配合力方差差异均达显著或极显著水平，穗长和一次枝梗数主要受基因加性效应控制，总粒数、结实率、千粒质量、着粒密度和单穗质量主要受非加性效应影响。7个性状广义遗传力从大到小依次为：千粒质量、着粒密度、总粒数、单穗质量、一次枝梗数、穗长和结实率，狭义遗传力从大到小依次为：一次枝梗数、穗长、着粒密度、千粒质量、总粒数、结实率和单穗质量。‘M20S’总粒数、一次枝梗数和着粒密度3个性状一般配合力最佳，分别为42.96、17.69和45.35，单穗质量的一般配合力为正值。结论 ‘M20S’一般配合力好的性状较多，是一个优良的亲本；‘M20S/航恢24’总粒数、着粒密度和单穗质量的特殊配合力较高，符合大穗型育种要求。总粒数、千粒质量、着粒密度和单穗质量主要受遗传效应的控制；一次枝梗数和穗长等性状可以在杂交早代选择，以提高育种效率。
Objective To analyze panicle trait combining ability and heritability of rice two-line sterile line ‘M20S’, and accelerate the application process of potential breeding value of ‘M20S’.Method Four light-sensitive rice sterile lines (‘Wang S’, ‘Deep 08S’, ‘Y58S’ and ‘M20S’) and three restoration lines (‘Hanghui 1173’, ‘Hanghui 91’ and ‘Hanghui 24’) were designed to combine according to 4×3 incomplete diallel cross (NCII), and the combining ability and heritability of panicle traits of sterile lines were analyzed.Result The variance differences of general combining ability and special combining ability of all traits were significant or extremely significant. The panicle length and primary branch number were mainly controlled by gene additive effects. Total grain number, seed setting rate, 1 000-grain weight, grain density and single panicle weight were mainly affected by non-additive effects. The generalized heritabilities of seven traits from large to small were 1 000-grain weight, grain density, total grain number, single panicle weight, primary branch number, panicle length and seed setting rate. The narrow heritabilities from large to small were the primary branch number, panicle length, grain density, 1 000-grain weight, total grain number, seed setting rate and single panicle weight. The general combining abilities of ‘M20S’ total grain number, primary branch number and grain density were 42.96, 17.69 and 45.35 respectively. The general combining ability of ‘M20S’ single panicle weight was positive. Conclusion ‘M20S’ has many traits that have good general combining abilities, and is an excellent parent. The special combining abilities of ‘M20S/Huihui 24’ total grain number, grain density and single panicle weight are higher, which is in line with the requirements of large panicle type breeding. Total grain number, 1 000-grain weight, grain density and single panicle weight are mainly controlled by genetic effects. The primary branch number, panicle length and other traits can be selected in early hybridization to improve breeding efficiency.