目的 研究高蛋白饲粮对1~14日龄雏鹅生长性能、血液生化指标及肝脏、肾脏组织的影响，并对其痛风致病机理进行初步探讨。方法 选用体质量相近的1日龄雏雁鹅72只，随机分成3组：A、B和C组分别饲喂粗蛋白质量分数为16%、20%和24%的饲粮，每组3个重复，每个重复8只。结果 A组鹅的生长性能高于B、C组；血清总蛋白、白蛋白和球蛋白的水平随着饲料蛋白水平增加而升高，但差异不显著；C组血清尿酸、丙氨酸氨基转移酶、尿素氮、乳酸脱氢酶的水平显著高于A、B组，而C组总胆红素水平显著低于A、B组。C组肝脏组织中的白细胞介素–1β、白细胞介素–8、黄嘌呤氧化酶活性和肾脏中肿瘤坏死因子–α活性显著高于A、B组。A组肝脏、肾脏组织正常；B组肝脏组织有轻微炎性细胞，肾脏组织正常；C组肝脏细胞出现坏死、水肿和炎性浸润，肾小管空泡变性，肾小球萎缩。C组鹅出现痛风症状。结论 在饲养条件相同的情况下，饲喂粗蛋白质量分数为24%的饲粮影响雏鹅的生长性能和血清尿酸等部分血液生化指标，引起肝脏和肾脏组织一定程度的损伤以及输尿管有尿酸盐沉积等痛风变化。
Objective To study the effects of high protein diet on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, liver and kidney tissues of goslings at the age of 1 to 14 days, and preliminarily investigate gout pathogenesis of high protein diet.Method Seventy-two one-day-old geese were randomly allocated into three groups with three replicates per group and eight geese per replicate. Group A, B and C were fed with diets containing 16%, 20% and 24% crude protein, respectively.Result The growth performance of geese in group A were higher than those in group B and C. Total protein, albumin and globulin levels of serum increased with the increase of dietary protein level, but the differences were not significant. Serum uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, urea nitrogen, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in group C were significantly higher than those in group A and B, while total bilirubin level in group C was significantly lower than those in group A and B. The interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and xanthine oxidase activities of liver tissues and tumor necrosis factor-α activity of kidney tissues in group C were significantly higher than those in group A and B. In group A, the liver and kidney tissues were normal. In group B, there were mild inflammatory cells in liver tissues, and the kidney tissues were normal. In group C, necrosis, edema and inflammatory infiltration of liver cells and tubular vacuolar degeneration, glomerular atrophy of kidney were observed. The geese exhibited gout symptoms in group C.Conclusion Under the same feeding conditions, feeding with 24% crude protein can affect growth performance, serum uric acid and other blood biochemical indexes of goslings, cause some damage to liver and kidney tissue, and produce gout symptoms, such as urate deposition in the ureter.