目的 具备自主飞行、航线规划与优化、精准控制与变量作业能力是农用小型无人机(Agricultural small unmanned aerial vehicle, ASUAV)的发展方向。本研究为ASUAV在全区域覆盖下自主飞行作业前的航线拐点坐标解算、飞行航向、起降点位置以及转弯掉头模式等提供优化选择。方法 利用基于自主恒速飞行和最小转弯半径约束的无人机转弯掉头策略，分析并设计了任意凸多边形作业区域下无人机的路径规划方法，提出了基于幅宽微变的航线归整法路径规划方案，并对结构化农田区域实现全区域覆盖条件下的路径进行了规划与优化选择。结果 基于最优转弯掉头模式下的ASUAV全区域覆盖路径规划方法适用于任意凸多边形结构的农田区域，GUI程序在解算地头边界航线拐点坐标的同时能优化选择出效率最高的飞行作业航线。在试验田随机规划出一个面积约为2.7 hm2的不规则凸六边形田块，仿真发现当无人机沿着平行于最长边飞行作业时，其空行行程最短，约为540 m，工作效率也最高，接近90%。结论 经过优化选择后的ASUAV掉头转弯模式、起降点位置、飞行航向以及解算后航线拐点坐标等可以实现全区域覆盖，研究结果为ASUAV自主飞行作业提供了参考。
Objective The development trend of agricultural small UAV (ASUAV) is having a capability with autonomous flight, working route planning and optimization, precise control and variable operation. This study provides the optimized selection of flight heading, take-off and landing location, turning mode and flight point coordinate solution for ASUAV before autonomous flight operation under the condition of whole-area coverage.Method Turning mode strategy of ASUAV was studied based on autonomous flight at constant speed under constraint of the minimum turning radius. The path planning method under arbitrary convex polygons was analyzed and designed. An integerized route planning scheme was proposed based on the slight change of working width. Path planning and optimal selection under the condition of whole region-coverage were achieved in the structured farmland area.Result The whole-area coverage path planning method based on the optimal turning mode of ASUAV was applicable to the farmland with arbitrary convex polygon structure. GUI program could optimize flight route with the highest efficiency while calculating flight point coordinates of ground boundary. An irregular convex hexagonal field with an area of about 2.7 hm2 was randomly planned in the field. The simulation results showed that when ASUAV was flying parallel to the longest side of the field, the invalid distance was the shortest with about 540 m, and the efficiency was the highest which was close to 90%.Conclusion The optimized turning mode, take-off and landing location, flight heading and route inflection point coordinates can realize the full area coverage. This result can provide a reference for ASUAV autonomous flight operation.