虹彩病毒（Iridovirus）是目前海水和淡水养殖鱼类最严重的病毒性病原之一，已从100多种鱼类中分离鉴定出该病毒。石斑鱼虹彩病毒（Singapore grouper iridovirus， SGIV）是从新加坡养殖的患病石斑鱼中分离鉴定的高致病性虹彩病毒，是虹彩病毒科Iridoviridae蛙病毒属Iridovirus 1种新的病毒。本文从以下几个方面对SGIV的研究进行综述：SGIV的形态、超微结构及其在石斑鱼细胞中的复制和装配过程；SGIV病毒基因组、转录组、囊膜蛋白质组及miRNAs的解析；SGIV感染宿主靶标组织的鉴定；病毒侵染的入侵方式、运动轨迹和胞内运输的实时追踪；SGIV感染宿主引起类凋亡的死亡机制及介导的信号通路的揭示；多种宿主免疫抗病基因对病毒感染的调节作用；多种SGIV的检测技术，包括基于抗体的流式细胞技术、微流控芯片检测技术、环介导等温扩增技术及核酸适配体检测方法等；SGIV的灭活疫苗、亚单位疫苗和DNA疫苗的研制等。以期为深入阐明SGIV感染致病机理奠定坚实的理论基础，为发展抗病毒对策提供技术支撑。
Iridovirus is one of the most serious viral pathogens in marine and freshwater cultured fish. Up to now, iridoviruses have been isolated and identified from more than 100 fish species worldwide. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), a novel species of Ranavirus, was isolated from diseased grouper in Singapore. On the basis of establishing a virus-sensitive cell infection model, morphology, ultrastructure, replication and biochemical characterization of SGIV in grouper host cells were studied by electron microscopy and biochemical analysis. The molecular biological characterizations of SGIV, including viral genome, transcriptome, envelope proteome and viral microRNAs, were systematically analyzed by Omics analysis. The interactions between SGIV and host were investigated from many aspects, including identifying the target tissues of SGIV infection, tracking the single virus entry and transport, non-apoptosis cell death induced by SGIV infection, functions of host immune related genes in virus infection. Meanwhile, a variety of SGIV detection technologies have been developed, including antibody-based flow cytometry, microfluidic chip detection technology platform system, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and nucleic acid aptamer detection method. In addition, SGIV inactivated vaccine, subunit vaccine and DNA vaccine were developed. The results provide a theoretical basis for better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of SGIV infection, and offer technical supports for the prevention and control of SGIV.