近百年来，随着现代稻作农业的发展，水稻Oryza sativa L.品种不断地更新换代。根据水稻品种的遗传基础、特征特性及演变规律，本文把水稻品种分为5个世代（G）。第1代（1G）为高秆水稻，第2代（2G）为半矮秆水稻，第3代（3G）为亚种内杂交水稻，第4代（4G）为亚种间渗入水稻，第5代（5G）为亚种间杂交水稻。在5代水稻中，1G高秆水稻在20世纪60年代后被半矮秆水稻替代，之后基本没有大面积种植。2G半矮秆水稻、3G亚种内杂交水稻和4G亚种间渗入水稻从推广应用至今仍然在使用。5G亚种间杂交水稻即将面世。每一代水稻的出现，都是水稻品种的一次重大创新，都带来水稻育种和生产的变革。认识水稻世代的演变规律，对于把握水稻的发展方向具有重要意义。
In recent one hundred years, rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties have undergone constant upgrading with the development of modern rice farming. According to the genetic basis, characteristics and evolution of rice varieties, this paper divides rice varieties into five generations (G). The first generation (1G) is tall rice, the second generation (2G) is semi-dwarf rice, the third generation (3G) is intra-subspecific hybrid rice, the fourth generation (4G) is inter-subspecific introgression rice, and the fifth generation (5G) is inter-subspecific hybrid rice. In five generations of rice, 1G of tall rice was replaced by semi-dwarf rice after the 1960s, and no more popularly planted afterwards. 2G of semi-dwarf rice, 3G of intra-subspecific hybrid rice, and 4G of inter-subspecific introgression rice are still being used today. 5G of inter-subspecific hybrid rice is coming to be applied. The emergence of each generation of rice is a major innovation in varieties, and has brought about changes in rice breeding and production. Understanding the evolution of rice generations is helpful to grasp rice development direction.