目的 为解决长江三角洲地区冬季没有加温设备的温室或大棚中盆栽作物易受低温冷害的问题，设计一种适用于矮株作物的根区加热系统。方法 研制了一种嵌套式双层栽培盆，夹层采用绝缘脂发泡剂填充，栽培盆基质内分别放置2块80 W/m2、15 cm×12 cm的硅橡胶加热板，加热板由STM32单片机输出信号到固态继电器进行加热功率控制，使用模糊PID控制算法，实时控制作物根区温度到设定值。结果 根区温度控制相对误差不超过5%。在连续低温条件下（连续一周平均气温低于5 ℃），当根区温度分别设定为15、20和25 ℃时，相比于对照组，高度为25~35 cm的作物地上部分日间平均温度分别提高1.4、2.6和3.7 ℃，夜间平均温度分别提高2.1、2.9和4.0 ℃；且与普通栽培盆相比，本文设计的保温栽培盆在3种不同根区温度下分别节省电能24.2%、25.3%和23.8%。结论 设计的作物根区加热系统，在连续低温条件下，不仅能有效提高作物根区温度，同时对作物地上部分也具有升温效果，一定条件下可缓解低温胁迫对冬季作物生长的影响。
Objective To design a root heating system suitable for dwarf crops, so as to solve the problem that potted crops in greenhouse without heating equipment in the Yangtze river delta region are vulnerable to low temperature and cold damage in winter.Method A nested double-layer cultivation pot was designed. The interlayer was filled with insulating fat foaming agent. Two silicone rubber heating plates of 80 W/m2 and 15 cm×12 cm were placed in the substrate of the cultivation pot. The heating plate was controlled by STM32 MCU, which output signals to the solid state relay for heating power control. Fuzzy PID control algorithm was used to control the temperature of the crop root area to the set value in real time.Result The relative error of root zone temperature control did not exceed 5%. Under the condition of continuous low temperature (average temperature below 5℃ for a week), when the root zone set temperature was 15, 20 and 25℃, the average daytime temperature of the aboveground parts with 30-35 cm height of crops increased by 1.4, 2.6 and 3.7℃ respectively compared with the control group, while their average night temperature increased by 2.1, 2.9 and 4.0℃ respectively. Compared with the common pot, the pots with root zone temperature of 15, 20, 25℃ saved electric energy by 24.2%, 25.3% and 23.8% respectively.Conclusion Under the condition of continuous low temperature, our system can not only effectively increase the temperature of crop root zone, but also can heat up the aboveground part of crop. Under certain conditions, our system can alleviate the effects of cold stress on winter crop growth.
张卓,汪小旵,赵进,刘景娜,Morice O. ODHIAMBO.温室盆栽作物根区加热系统的设计和试验[J].华南农业大学学报,2020,41(1):124-132复制