油菜-水稻轮作模式下油菜季氮肥投入与水稻季氮肥运筹对杂交籼稻光合生产力及产量的影响
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国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0301202,2017YFD0301706,2017YFD0301701);四川省育种攻关专项(2016NYZ0051)


Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application in rape season and nitrogen fertilizer management in rice season on photosynthetic productvity and yield of hybrid japonica rice under rape-rice rotation mode
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    目的 探索油菜季氮肥投入与水稻季氮肥运筹对杂交籼稻光合生产力及产量的影响,为水旱轮作模式下水稻适宜的氮肥运筹方式提供理论和实践依据。方法 以杂交籼稻‘F优498’为试验材料,研究油菜季2种氮肥投入量(常规施氮:180 kg·hm-2,减量施氮:150 kg·hm-2)、水稻季150 kg·hm-2施氮量基础上3种氮肥运筹模式[M1—m(基肥)∶m(分蘖肥)∶m(穗肥)=2∶2∶6,M2—m(基肥)∶m(分蘖肥)∶m(穗肥)=3∶3∶4,M3—m(基肥)∶m(分蘖肥)∶m(穗肥)=4∶4∶2]对杂交稻光合特性、干物质积累与转运和产量的影响。结果 相对于常规施氮,油菜季减量施氮影响了杂交稻齐穗期光合特性但没有达到显著水平;水稻季M1、M2、M3处理杂交稻齐穗期和齐穗后15 d的光合生产力均增加;油菜季减量施氮和水稻季M3运筹模式杂交稻的光合速率增幅最大。油菜季减量施氮处理杂交稻齐穗期和成熟期茎鞘干物质质量、转化率和产量均增加;水稻季M1、M2、M3处理杂交稻齐穗期茎鞘干物质质量和产量增加;油菜季减量施氮和水稻季M3运筹方式干物质积累增幅最大。结论 油菜季减量施氮和水稻季M3运筹方式可增强杂交稻生育后期光合性能,提高杂交稻叶面积指数,增加杂交稻干物质积累与转运,从而提高杂交稻产量,为本研究最佳处理。

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    Objective To explore the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application in rape season and nitrogen fertilizer management in rice season on hybrid japonica rice photosynthetic productivity and yield, and provide a theoretical and practical basis for suitable nitrogen fertilizer operation mode of rice under paddy-upland rotation.Method The hybrid japonica rice ‘F you 498’ was used as experimental material to investigate the effects of two nitrogen fertilizer application amounts (conventional nitrogen fertilizer application of 180 kg·hm-2, reduced nitrogen fertilizer application of 150 kg·hm-2) in rape season and three nitrogen fertilizer management methods based on 150 kg·hm-2 nitrogen fertilizer in rice season on photosynthetic characteristics, material accumulation and transport and yield of hybrid rice. The concrete nitrogen fertilizer management methods were M1 (the mass ratio of base fertilizer, tiller fertilizer and panicle fertilizer was 2∶2∶6), M2 (the mass ratio of base fertilizer, tiller fertilizer and panicle fertilizer was 3∶3∶4) and M3 (the mass ratio of base fertilizer, tiller fertilizer and panicle fertilizer was 4∶4∶2).Result Compared to conventional nitrogen fertilizer application, reduced nitrogen fertilizer application affected photosynthetic characteristics of rice at full heading stage, but the effect was not significant. M1, M2 and M3 treatments increased photosynthetic productivity of rice at full heading stage and 15 days after full heading. The photosynthetic rate increased most in reduced nitrogen fertilizer application and M3 treatment. Reduced nitrogen fertilizer application increased rice stem-sheath dry mattar mass at full heading stage and maturity stage, conversion rate and yield. M1, M2 and M3 increased rice stem-sheath dry mattar mass at full heading stage and yield. The highest increase of dry matter accumulation was in reduced nitrogen fertilizer application and M3 treatment.Conclusion Reduced nitrogen fertilizer application in rape season and M3 management method in rice season can improve rice yield by enhancing photosynthetic performance at late growth stage, increasing leaf area index, and promoting dry matter accumulation and transportation. It is the best treatment in this study.

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马鹏,杨志远,李娜,李郁,吕旭,孙永健,马均.油菜-水稻轮作模式下油菜季氮肥投入与水稻季氮肥运筹对杂交籼稻光合生产力及产量的影响[J].华南农业大学学报,2020,41(3):23-30

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  • 收稿日期:2019-08-12
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  • 在线发布日期: 2020-05-07