组合型孔排种器护种机构的优化设计与试验
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广东省重点领域研发计划(2020B020210007);国家自然科学基金(32001426);广东省基础与应用基础研究基金(2020A1515110225);现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-01-41)


Optimization design and test of seed protecting structure of combined type-hole metering device
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    目的 解决水稻精量穴直播机组合型孔排种器在实际应用过程中护种带容易跑偏、打滑,导致护种带磨损严重、伤种率偏高的问题。方法 对护种机构同步原理进行分析,优化设计了轴套结构(A)和护种带硬度(B)。以水稻品种‘培杂泰丰’和 ‘秀水134’ 种子为试验材料,设计了以不同轴套结构[尼龙轴套结构(A1)和滚针轴承&铜套结构(A2)]和不同护种带硬度[40(B1)、45(B2)、50(B3)、55(B4)和60 HA(B5)]为变量的双因素试验。结果 A和B对水稻种子伤种率影响极显著(P<0.01),且A与B之间存在显著交互作用(P < 0.05);A2B2和A2B3对伤种率影响最小;A1与A2之间差异极显著,且A2组的伤种率明显小于A1组,说明A2优于A1;B2与B3差异不显著,但与其他试验组差异显著。A对穴径影响显著,B对穴径无显著影响,且A2B2、A2B3和A2B4对穴径影响较小;A1、A2对穴径的影响差异极显著,且A2明显优于A1。工作100 h后,试验组A2B3、A2B4和A2B5的护种带磨损量较小;试验组A2B3最优,其护种带磨损体积为72.6×10?3 mm3,伤种率为0.04%,成穴性最好、播种效果最佳。结论 优化设计的滚针轴承&铜套的轴套结构合理,可以显著减小轴套与转轴之间的摩擦系数,且更耐高温、更耐磨;有效地提高了护种带的同步性,显著地提升了排种器的可靠性和播种质量。

    Abstract:

    Objective In order to solve the problems that the seed guard belt is easy to deviate and slip in application of the combined type-hole metering device of rice precision hole seeder, which leads to serious wear of the seed guard belt and high rate of seed damage.Method The synchronization principle of seed protection mechanism was analyzed, and the shaft sleeve structure(A) and the hardness of seed guard belt(B) were optimized. A two-factor experiment with different bushing structures (A1 as nylon bushing structure, A2 as needle bearing & copper bushing structure) and hardness of seed guard belt (B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 represented the hardness of 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 HA, respectively) was designed using rice variety ‘Peizataifeng’ and ‘Xiushui134’ seeds as test materials.Result The experimental groups of A and B had the highly significant effect on the damage rate of rice seeds (P < 0.01), and there was a significant interaction between A and B (P < 0.05). A2B2 and A2B3 had the least effect on seed damage rate. There was a highly significant difference between A1 and A2, and seed damage rate of A2 was significantly lower than that of A1, indicating that A2 was better than A1. There was no significant difference between B2 and B3, but B2 and B3 had significant difference with other groups. The experimental group A had a significant effect on hill diameter, B had no significant effect on hill diameter, and the groups of A2B2, A2B3 and A2B4 had the less effect on hill diameter. There was a significant difference between A1 and A2, and A2 was significantly better than A1.The results of test showed that the wear of seed guard belt of A2B3, A2B4 and A2B5 were less after working for 100 hour. The grouo A2B3 was the optimal with the wearing volume of 72.6×10?3 mm3 and seed injury rate of 0.04%, and the hole forming ability and sowing effect were both the best.Conclusion The optimized design of needle bearing & copper bushing shaft sleeve structure is reasonable. It can significantly reduce the friction coefficient between sleeve and shaft, is more resistant to high temperature and wear resistance, effectively improves the synchronization of seed guard belt, and significantly improves the reliability and sowing quality of seed platter.

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张明华,肖明,欧阳令,蒋恩臣,乔君,王在满,刘顺财,许鹏,罗锡文.组合型孔排种器护种机构的优化设计与试验[J].华南农业大学学报,2021,42(4):99-105

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  • 收稿日期:2021-03-20
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-07-13