智慧农业的发展现状与未来展望
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中国工程院重大咨询项目(2019-ZD-05)


Current situations and prospects of smart agriculture
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    摘要:

    为探究我国智慧农业未来发展的目标、任务与政策,本文基于系统工程学视角,阐释了智慧农业的概念与内涵,介绍了国外智慧农业相关战略布局与行动计划,分析了我国智慧农业发展现状、特点以及与国际上的差距,提出了我国智慧农业未来发展目标、重点任务与政策建议。美、德、英、日等国在农业传感器、农业大数据智能、农业智能装备等智慧农业科技领域占据国际前沿;中国在政策引领与规模经营趋势下,常用环境类农业传感器、农业遥感技术、农业无人机、农机北斗导航、农业大数据与智能算法等智慧农业技术研发应用取得了长足进步,部分产品基本实现国产替代。发展智慧农业是“十四五”时期乃至2035年我国农业高质量发展的重要内容,针对我国农田地块细碎化、农业机械化水平不高、农村基础设施薄弱、智慧农业技术有效供给不足、政策体系与市场机制不健全等问题,未来智慧农业的发展亟需在技术攻关、应用示范、政策试验和社会试验等方面共同发力。

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    The purpose of this article is to explore the objectives, tasks and policies of smart agricultural development in the future of China. Based on the perspective of system engineering, the concept and connotation of smart agriculture were expounded. The strategic layouts and action plans of smart agriculture abroad were introduced. The development status and characteristics of domestic smart agriculture and the gap between China and the world were analyzed systematically, and the development objectives, key tasks and policy suggestions for smart agriculture in the future of China were put forward. Agricultural developed countries, like United States, Germany, Britain, Japan, etc., occupy the international forefront in the fields of intelligent agricultural science and technology, such as agricultural sensors, agricultural big data intelligence and agricultural intelligent equipment. In China, the R & D and application of smart agricultural technologies, including common environmental agricultural sensor, agricultural remote sensing technology, agricultural UAV, agricultural machinery Beidou navigation, agricultural big data and intelligent algorithm, have made great progress under the trend of policy guidance and large-scale operation, and some imported technical products have been replaced by domestic products. Developing smart agriculture is an important part of China’s high-quality agricultural development strategy during the 14th Five Year Plan period and even to 2035. In view of the problems, such as the fragmentation of farmland plot, the low level of agricultural mechanization, the weak rural infrastructure, the insufficient effective supply of smart agricultural technology, and the imperfect policy system and market mechanism, the development of future smart agriculture urgently needs to focus on technology research, application demonstration, policy experiment and social experiment together.

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赵春江.智慧农业的发展现状与未来展望[J].华南农业大学学报,2021,42(6):1-7

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  • 收稿日期:2021-08-20
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-11-04