The purpose of this article is to explore the objectives, tasks and policies of smart agricultural development in the future of China. Based on the perspective of system engineering, the concept and connotation of smart agriculture were expounded. The strategic layouts and action plans of smart agriculture abroad were introduced. The development status and characteristics of domestic smart agriculture and the gap between China and the world were analyzed systematically, and the development objectives, key tasks and policy suggestions for smart agriculture in the future of China were put forward. Agricultural developed countries, like United States, Germany, Britain, Japan, etc., occupy the international forefront in the fields of intelligent agricultural science and technology, such as agricultural sensors, agricultural big data intelligence and agricultural intelligent equipment. In China, the R & D and application of smart agricultural technologies, including common environmental agricultural sensor, agricultural remote sensing technology, agricultural UAV, agricultural machinery Beidou navigation, agricultural big data and intelligent algorithm, have made great progress under the trend of policy guidance and large-scale operation, and some imported technical products have been replaced by domestic products. Developing smart agriculture is an important part of China’s high-quality agricultural development strategy during the 14th Five Year Plan period and even to 2035. In view of the problems, such as the fragmentation of farmland plot, the low level of agricultural mechanization, the weak rural infrastructure, the insufficient effective supply of smart agricultural technology, and the imperfect policy system and market mechanism, the development of future smart agriculture urgently needs to focus on technology research, application demonstration, policy experiment and social experiment together.