Y型棚架式果园的3WZ-300风送喷雾机设计与试验
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江苏省农业自主创新资金(CX181007);国家自然科学基金(51805271);南京农业大学SRT专项计划(S20190037)


Design and experiment of 3WZ-300 type air-assisted sprayer for orchard with Y-typed trellis
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    摘要:

    目的 针对Y型棚架式果树的需风特性设计一款风送喷雾机,探究机具对此树形的施药规律,为新式果园栽植工艺的植保机具设计提供参考。方法 结合棚架梨树Y型树冠需风特性,设计一款异形导风管,确定发散型射流口,喷雾范围可全面覆盖冠层,并进行整机配置,风机使用无级调速带轮进行调速。以作业速度、出口风速、出风口与冠层中部高度差作为试验参数,以靶标雾滴覆盖率、靶标雾滴沉积量以及地面雾滴沉积量作为评价指标,设计田间试验。利用Design-Expert软件建立响应曲面分析参数对指标的影响,并对机具作业参数进行优化。结果 优化结果表明:3WZ-300风送喷雾机在作业速度0.8 m/s、出口风速22 m/s、出风口中部与梨树冠层中部高度差为5.1 cm时,靶标雾滴覆盖率为39.79%,靶标雾滴沉积量为9.89 μL/cm2,地面雾滴沉积量为5.41 μL/cm2,有效附着药液占比60.1%。结论 该喷雾机满足果园作业要求,施药效果较好,为棚架式果园喷雾机的设计及机具参数优化提供了参考。

    Abstract:

    Objective This study was aimed to design a air-assisted sprayer for the wind requirement of fruit tree with Y-typed trellis, explore the spraying regularity of applying the machine to such type of tree, and provide references for designing plant protection equipment for the orchard with new planting technology.Method According to wind demanding characteristic of the Y-typed canopy of pear trees, a special-shaped duct was designed. The duct could be adjusted according to different conditions, and the range of spray could cover tree canopy completely. The whole machine was configured, and the fan speed was adjusted using a stepless speed regulation pulley. The operating speed, outlet wind speed and height difference between the outlet and the middle of canopy were taken as test parameters, and the droplet coverage rate on target, the droplet deposition of target and the droplet deposition on ground were taken as evaluation indexes. The Design-Expert software was used to establish response surface, analyze the influence of parameters on the indexes, and optimize the operating parameters of the machine.Result The optimization results showed that when the operating speed was 0.8 m/s, the outlet wind speed was 22 m/s and the height difference between the middle part of the air outlet and the middle part of the pear canopy was 5.1 cm, the droplet coverage rate on target was 39.79%, the droplet deposition was 9.89 μL/cm2, the droplet deposition on ground was 5.41 μL/cm2, and the ratio of effectively attached liquid was 60.1%.Conclusion This machine can satisfy the requirements of orchard operation with good spraying effect. It provides a reference for the design of sprayer for rack type orchard and the optimization of machine parameters.

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王杰,邱威,丁为民,张镇涛,闻桢杰,苏永喜. Y型棚架式果园的3WZ-300风送喷雾机设计与试验[J].华南农业大学学报,2021,42(6):60-70

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  • 收稿日期:2021-05-10
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-11-04