三七育苗播种机导种管设计与试验
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云南省科技计划农业联合专项重点项目(2018FG 001-007);云南省科技厅重大科技专项(2018ZC001-4-3,2019ZG00902-03)


Design and experiment of seed tube of seedling planter for Panax notoginseng
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    目的 为提高三七Panax notoginseng育苗机械化播种精确性,针对三七小行株距的特点,研究一种新型导种管。方法 分别建立有、无导种管情况下种子运动的力学模型。在土槽上开展了以投种高度、播种机前进速度、投种角度为试验因素,以理论播种点与实际播种点距离偏差的标准差和弹跳率为试验指标的三因素五水平二次回归正交旋转组合试验;借助Design-Expert 10.0.3软件建立了试验因素与指标间的回归方程及多目标优化数学模型,获取最佳投种参数组合;在最优参数组合下,使用高速摄像技术获取种子运动轨迹,结合运用图像处理技术和曲线拟合法进行种子运动轨迹曲线方程研究;借助EDEM软件进行导种管截面尺寸仿真分析,确定截面尺寸;用3D打印技术试制导种管并开展播种验证试验。结果 在有、无导种管情况下,影响种子离开排种器后运动的共同因素为排种器的周围速度、投种高度和投种角度。通过正交旋转组合试验得出最优投种参数组合为投种高度20 cm、播种机前进速度7.8 m/min、投种角度42°。在未安装导种管条件下,理论播种点与实际播种点距离偏差的标准差、弹跳率分别为51.66 mm和72.31%。研制的新型导种管出口和入口截面尺寸分别为26 mm×30 mm和26 mm×60 mm;安装新型导种管后验证试验结果显示,理论播种点与实际播种点距离偏差标准差为26.90,弹跳率为45.20%。结论 新型导种管满足了三七育苗机械化播种要求,播种精确性明显提高,研究结果可为三七育苗播种机导种管设计与田间播种应用提供了参考依据。

    Abstract:

    Objective In order to improve the accuracy of mechanized seeding of Panax notoginseng, according to the characteristics of small row spacing of P. notoginseng, a new type of seed guide tube was studied.Method The mechanical model was established with and without seed guide tube, respectively. The experiment was carried out in soil trough through the three-factor-five-level quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination experiment with seed release height, seeder forward speed and seed release angle as the experimental factors, and the standard deviation of distance deviation between theoretical seeding point and actual seeding point, and bounce rate as the experimental indexes. With Design-Expert 10.0.3 software, the regression equation between test factors and indexes and the mathematical model of multi-objective optimization were established to get the best combination of seeding parameters. Under the optimal combination of parameters, high-speed camera technology was used to obtain the seed motion trajectory, and the curve equation of seed motion trajectory was studied by image processing technology and curve fitting method. With EDEM software, the cross-section size of seed guide tube was simulated and analyzed, and the cross-section size was determined. Seed guide tube was manufactured using 3D printing technology and seeding verification test was carried out.Result The common factors affecting seed motion with and without the seed guide tube were circumferential speed of seed merering device, seed release height and seed release angle. Through orthogonal rotation combination test, the optimal combination of seeding parameters was as follows: The seed release height was 20 cm, the seeder forward speed was 7.8 m/min and the seed release angle was 42°. Without seed guide tube, the standard deviation of distance deviation between theoretical seeding point and actual seeding point was 51.66 mm, and the bounce rate was 72.31%. The exit and entrance cross-section sizes of the developed seed guide tube were 26 mm×30 mm and 26 mm×60 mm, respectively. The verification test results showed that after installing the new seed guide tube, the standard deviation of distance deviation between theoretical seeding point and actual seeding point was 26.90 mm and the bounce rate was 45.20%.Conclusion The new seed guide tube satisfies the requirement of the mechanized seeding of P. notoginseng, the seeding accuracy after installing the new seed guide tube is obviously improved. The research results provide a reference basis for the design and field seeding application of the seed guide tube of P. notoginseng seedling seeder.

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杨文彩,张效伟,仲广远,郑嘉鑫,蒲望,马永敢.三七育苗播种机导种管设计与试验[J].华南农业大学学报,2022,43(1):120-132

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  • 收稿日期:2021-04-08
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-01-08