干旱胁迫对玉米雄穗发育特征及产量的影响
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吉林省重点研发计划(20200403069SF)


Influence of drought stress on tassel development characteristics and yield of maize
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    目的 探究干旱胁迫对玉米雄穗发育特征及产量的影响,以期为中国东北地区玉米种植抗旱保产提供一定理论基础。方法 采用盆栽试验,设置原土处理和添加土壤改良剂处理,并于玉米大喇叭口期至吐丝期进行不同程度的干旱胁迫:正常供水、轻度干旱胁迫、中度干旱胁迫和重度干旱胁迫,研究不同程度干旱胁迫对玉米的抽雄吐丝间隔、雄穗形态特征、生理指标以及产量的影响。结果 干旱胁迫导致玉米雌穗吐丝时间延后,雌、雄穗开花吐丝不同步,且在重度干旱胁迫时达到最大值,其中原土处理较CK延长了6.33 d,添加土壤改良剂处理延长了4.67 d;不同程度干旱胁迫会导致玉米雄穗变小、主轴缩短,轻度干旱胁迫有利于雄穗积累干物质,原土处理和添加土壤改良剂处理的雄穗干物质分别比CK增加了5.18%和14.87%;干旱胁迫会促使雄穗分泌抗氧化系统酶以及渗透调节物质抵御逆境伤害,但重度干旱胁迫时雄穗内部产生过多丙二醛(MDA)以及有害物质,会导致抗氧化系统酶活性有所降低;干旱胁迫会造成玉米产量严重下降,重度干旱胁迫时原土处理的产量与CK相比下降了62.39%,添加土壤改良剂处理的产量则下降了57.77%。结论 干旱胁迫会对玉米雄穗发育以及产量造成严重影响,尤其在重度干旱胁迫时,影响程度最为严重,会对雄穗造成不可逆伤害;施用土壤改良剂可以在一定程度上提高玉米雄穗抗逆性,从而保证玉米雄穗正常生长发育以及产量。

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    Objective To explore the effects of drought stress on maize tassel development characteristics and yield, and provide a theoretical basis for drought resistance and yield protection of maize planting in northeast China.Method In the pot experiment, original soil treatment and adding soil conditioner treatment were set up. Different drought stress degrees of normal water supply (CK), light drought stress, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress were conducted from the big trumpet stage to silking stage of maize, to study the effects of different drought stress degrees on maize anthesis-silking interval, tassel morphological and physiological characteristics and yield. Result Drought stress delayed the silking time of the female inflorscence of maize causing the tasseling and, silking of the maize to be asynchronous, most seriously under severe drought stress. Compared with CK, the anthesis-silking interval in the original soil and adding soil conditioner treatments was extended by 6.33 and 4.67 d, respectively. Different drought stress degrees decreased the maize size and spindle length. Light drought stress was conducive to the accumulation of dry matter in the maize tassels, and compared with CK, the tassel dry matter in the original soil treatment and the adding soil conditioner treatment increased by 5.18% and 14.87%, respectively. Drought stress prompted the tassels to secrete antioxidant system enzymes and osmotic adjustment substances to resist adversity damage. However, under severe drought stress, too much malondialdehyde (MDA) and harmful substances were produced in the tassel, which caused the activity of the antioxidant system enzyme to decrease. Drought stress caused a serious decline in maize yield. Under severe drought stress, the maize yield in the original soil treatment decreased by 62.39% compared with CK, and the yield in the adding soil conditioner treatment decreased by 57.77%.Conclusion Drought stress seriously affects the development and yield of maize tassels, especially under severe drought stress, which causes irreversible damage to the tassels. The application of soil conditioner can improve the stress resistance of maize tassels to a certain extent, thereby ensuring the normal growth and development of maize tassels and yield.

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李锦秀,郭勇智,崔蓉,张欣宇,王呈玉,刘淑霞.干旱胁迫对玉米雄穗发育特征及产量的影响[J].华南农业大学学报,2022,43(3):26-33

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  • 收稿日期:2021-07-16
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-05-10