目的 探明生物炭对不同水稻品种的土壤细菌群落多样性、丰度及结构的影响，为生物炭在水稻生产中的应用提供科学依据。方法 2019年选取广东省江门县台山镇潮土型晚稻田，设置不施生物炭(对照，CK)、生物炭施加3.5 t/hm2(Tr1)、生物炭施加7 t/hm2(Tr2)为主区，选用6个不同的常规优质水稻品种‘黄华占’、‘五常香稻’、‘象牙香占’、‘湘晚籼17’、‘农香32’和‘玉针香’进行裂区试验，并进行16S rRNA基因V3-V4高通量测序技术分析。结果 生物炭Tr1、Tr2处理均显著提高了‘玉针香’的土壤细菌群落多样性，生物炭Tr2处理显著提高了‘玉针香’的土壤细菌群落丰富度，生物炭Tr1处理显著提高了‘黄华占’的土壤细菌群落丰富度。共获得细菌73门92纲174目298科682属456种，主要包含变形菌门Proteobacteria、厚壁菌门Firmicutes、拟杆菌门Bacteroidetes、硝化螺旋菌门Nitrospirae和酸杆菌门Acidobacteria等10个主要门类细菌，其中变形菌门为第1优势菌(相对丰度为30.0%~61.1%)，以γ–、δ–、α–变形菌纲为优势亚群，某些水稻品种的变形菌门、拟杆菌门在Tr2处理较CK出现显著上升，广古菌门Euryarchaeota在Tr1处理较CK明显上升。生物炭处理引起了对应土壤细菌群落结构组成在属水平上的变化，食酸菌属Acidovorax、鞘氨醇单胞菌属Sphingomonas、土地杆菌属Pedobacter等相对丰度较低或极低的土壤细菌类群更敏感，更容易受到生物炭的影响。与CK相比，生物炭Tr1处理对土壤细菌群落组成及分布存在影响。结论 生物炭处理可在一定程度上对稻田土壤细菌群落产生影响，水稻品种‘玉针香’和‘黄华占’的土壤细菌群落受生物炭施加影响变化较大，生物炭处理提高了‘玉针香’和‘黄华占’的土壤细菌群落多样性及丰富度，生物炭处理的差异主要体现在土壤细菌群落相对丰度上。
Objective To discover the effects of biochar on soil bacterial community diversity, abundance and structure of different rice varieties, and provide a scientific basis for the application of biochar in paddy field. Method Experiment of split-split plot was designed in the late rice field of Fluvo-aquic soil type in Taishan Town of Jiangmen County, Guangdong Province in 2019, treatments were designed with no biochar application(CK), biochar application of 3.5 t/hm2 (Tr1) and 7 t/hm2 (Tr2) as the main plots, six different conventional high-quality rice varieties, including ‘Huanghuazhan’, ‘Wuchangxiangdao’, ‘Xiangyaxiangzhan’, ‘Xiangwanxian’, ‘Nongxiang 32’ and ‘Yuzhenxiang ’, were designed as the subplots in each main plots. 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 high-throughput sequencing technology analysis was conducted. Result Biochar Tr1 and Tr2 treatments significantly improved the bacterial community diversity of rice variety ‘Yuzhenxiang’, and biaochar Tr2 treatment significantly improved the bacterial community richness of rice variety ‘Yuzhenxiang’, and also biaochar Tr1 treatment significantly increased the bacterial community abundance of rice variety ‘Huanghuazhan’. A total of 73 phyla, 92 classes, 174 orders, 298 families, 682 genera and 456 species of bacteria were obtained, mainly including 10 main phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Nitrospirae, Acidobacteria, etc. Among them, the Proteobacteria are the first dominant bacteria (the proportion of relative abundance reaching 30.0%~61.1%), with γ-, δ-, and α-Proteobacteria as the dominant subgroups. Compared with CK, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes of some rice varieties showed a significant increase in Tr2 treatment, and Euryarchaeota increased significantly in Tr1 treatment. Biochar treatment caused changes in the structural composition of the corresponding soil bacterial community at the genus level. Soil bacterial groups with relatively low or extremely low abundance, such as Acidovorax, Sphingomonas and Pedobacter, were more sensitive and susceptible to the impact of biochar. The Tr1 treatment had an effect on the composition and distribution of soil bacteria compared with CK. Conclusion Biochar treatment can affect the soil bacterial community in rice field to some extent, the soil bacterial communities of rice varieties of ‘Yuzhenxiang’ and ‘Huanghuazhan’ are mostly affected by biochar. Biochar treatment increases the soil bacterial community diversity and richness of rice varieties of ‘Yuzhenxiang’ and ‘Huanghuazhan’, and the difference between biochar treatment is mainly reflected in the relative abundance of soil bacterial communities.