国家自然科学基金 ( 31872435，32072814，31802156，31802032 )
目的 miR-146a作为抑炎因子，仍然不清楚其是否参与宿主与微生物间的互作，进而影响肠道稳态，因此本文旨在研究miR-146a对小鼠肠道菌群的影响。方法 以肠道miR-146a特异性敲除小鼠(CKO鼠)及对照小鼠(Flox鼠)为研究对象，利用16S rRNA高通量测序法检测2组空肠段的微生物菌群分布。结果 测序共获得1 134个用于物种分类的OTUs，包括 37门、80纲、161目、198科、261属、117种的细菌；Flox组和CKO组小鼠的空肠微生物中共有46个相同的OTUs；各组肠道微生物中厚壁菌门Firmicutes、拟杆菌门Bacteroidota、疣微菌门Verrucomicrobiota、变形菌门Proteobacteria和脱硫杆菌门Desulfobacterota是优势菌门；2组肠道微生物群落组成整体相似，但CKO组梭状芽孢杆菌纲Clostridia的平均相对丰度高于Flox组(P=0.067)，毛螺菌目Lachnospirales平均相对丰度显著高于Flox组(P<0.05)，其他层级组成无显著差异。结论 miR-146a敲除可改变宿主肠道梭状芽孢杆菌纲和毛螺菌目微生物的含量，为研究miR-146a通过改变宿主肠道微生物丰度来影响肠道健康状况提供参考。
Objective It is still unclear whether miR-146a, as an anti-inflammatory factor, is involved in the interaction between host and microbes, and then affects intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of miR-146a on the intestinal flora of mice.Method Intestinal miR-146a-specific knockout mice (CKO mice) and control mice (Flox mice) were used as research subjects, and the 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing method was used to detect the distribution of microflora in the jejunum of the two groups. Result Through sequencing, we obtained a total of 1 134 OTUs for species classification, including 37 phyla, 80 classes, 161 orders, 198 families, 261 genera and 117 species of bacteria. There were a total of 46 identical OTUs in the jejunal microbes of the Flox group and CKO group. Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Verrucomicrobiota, Proteobacteria and Desulfobacterota were the dominant bacteria in gut microbes of each group. The gut microbial community compositions of the two groups were generally similar, while the average abundance of Clostridia in the CKO group was higher than that in the Flox group (P=0.067), and the average abundance of Lachnospirales in the CKO group was significantly higher than that in the Flox group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the composition of other levels. Conclusion Knockout of miR-146a can alter the contents of Clostridia and Lachnospirales microorganisms in the host gut, which provides a reference for studying how miR-146a affects gut health by altering host gut microbes.