目的 通过不同水稻品种(系)食味相关性状对氮肥水平和种植季节的反应特性，鉴定出不同的响应类型，并筛选出响应相对不敏感的优质食味品种(系)，为优质稻新品种培育和优质高产栽培技术研发提供理论和材料支撑。方法 以华南优质、高产的常规稻和杂交稻品种及其亲本(共17份)为供试材料，在广州早、晚两季种植，分别实施4个施氮量水平(0 、90、135和180 kg/hm2)处理，观测其蒸煮食味品质的响应。结果 1)除碱消值响应较小外，直链淀粉含量(AC)、蛋白质含量(PC)和食味值(TV)对施氮量均有明显的响应：PC一般随施氮量的增加而升高，TV则一般随施氮量的增加而降低；AC、PC和TV在晚季以及胶稠度(GC)在早、晚两季存在施氮水平×品种(系)的互作效应。说明晚季施氮水平对GC、AC、PC和TV的影响因品种不同而异。2)晚季以N0(不施氮肥)处理的米饭TV最优，早季则一般以N1(90 kg/hm2)处理的米饭TV最优。说明早季应适当施用少量氮肥，而晚季则尽量不施氮肥可能更有利于米饭食味的提高。3)不同优质稻品种(系)米饭食味对施氮水平的敏感度不同，品种间存在较大差异。4)杂交稻F1代的GC、AC、PC和TV多数居于其相应父母本之间，但其TV一般偏向高值亲本，表现出部分显性或超显性。结论 要培育食味优良的常规稻和优质杂交稻，必须利用中低PC、中高TV的材料作亲本。在优质稻米生产中，选用米饭食味好，且对氮肥中低度敏感的优质稻品种，并根据生产季节不同配套相应的施肥技术方案，是高食味优质稻米产业发展的关键。
Objective To find the characteristics of responses of eating quality related traits to nitrogen fertilizer application rates and planting seasons, identify rice varieties (lines) with different responding types, screen out fine quality ones which are insensitive to nitrogen application amount, and provide theoretical and technical supports for developing new rice varieties (lines) with fine and stable quality and establishing high-yield and high-quality cultivation techniques. Method Totally seventeen rice varieties or lines were involved, including high-quality and high-yield conventional and hybird rice varieties, and their parental lines from South China, and four treatments of nitrogen fertilzer application rates (including 0, 90,135 and 180 kg/hm2) were conducted in the early and late cropping seasons, respectively, and the response of cooking and eating quality was observed. Result 1)Except that the alkali spreading value (ASV) had fewer response, amylose content (AC), protein content (PC) and taste value (TV) all had the obvious response to nitrogen fertilzer application rate, suggesting that the nitrogen fertilizer had significant affect on these quality traits. The PC increased with the increase of nitrogen application, whereas TV decreased with the increase of nitrogen application. There exsisted the interaction effect of nitrogen application level×variety (line) for Gel consistence (GC) in both early and late seasons, and for AC、PC and TV in the late season, suggesting that the effect of nitrogen application rate on AC, GC, PC and TV varied with varieties. 2)In the late season (LS), the rice varieties (lines) treated with no nitrogen fertilizer (N0) usually had the highest taste value, while in the early season (ES), the rice varieties (lines) treated with 90 kg/hm2 of nitrogen (N1) generally had the highest taste value, suggesting that a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer should be applied in ES, whereas as far as possible no or very few amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied in LS may be more conducive to improving the taste of rice. 3)Different high-quality rice varieties (lines) had different sensitivity to nitrogen application in rice taste, there exist great differences among varieties. 4)The GC, AC, PC and TV of hybrid F1 were mostly between their parents. However, their TV tended to the high-value parent, and exhibited partial dominant or overdominant. Conclusion To develop conventional rice and hybrid rice with good taste, it is necessary to use materials with medium and low PC and higher TV as parents for improving the breeding efficiency of new rice varieties. In the production of high quality rice, selecting high quality rice varieties with good taste and lower sensitivity to nitrogen fertilizer, and matching corresponding fertilization technology program according to the production season, is crucial to the development of high-taste and high-quality rice industry.